MATTIA BONZI

STUDENTE DI GRAFICA E COMUNICAZIONE

ASPIRANTE WEB-DESIGNER

Mattia.bonzi@itsosmilano.com

GRAMMATICA

 

 

I TEMPI VERBALI

 

 

 

 

 

Simple Present

 

Si usa per azione che si svolgono abitualmente (usually, often, every Monday etc.), per affermazioni sempre vere (Es. Today is monday) oppure quando parliamo di timetables (orari – the train leave at 17.00).

 

Si forma con l’infinito senza il “to” e aggiungendo la “s” alla terza persona singolare.

 

  • A: He speaks.
  • N: He does not speaks.
  • I: Does he speaks?

 

 

 

 

Present continuos

 

Si usa per azioni che si stanno svolgendo nel momento in cui il soggetto parla (Es. It’s raining) oppure nel periodo intorno ad esso (I’m reading a book)

 

Si forma con l’ausiliare essere + il verbo alla forma ING.

 

  • A: He is speaking.
  • N: He is not speaking.
  • I: Is he speaking?

 

 

 

 

Simple past

 

Si usa per indicare un’azione che si è svolta nel passato e che non ha più alcun collegamento con il presente.

Non ha importanza se è avvenuta un minuto fa o 50 anni fa.

Si usa quando nella frase è specificato il tempo in cui l’azione è avvenuta (yesterday i saw marco).

 

Si forma con la seconda forma del paradigma per i verbi irregolari oppure aggiungendo “ED” ai verbi regolari.

  • A: He spoke.
  • N: He did not speak.
  • I: Did he speak?

 

 

 

 

Past Continuous

 

Si usa per indicare due azioni passate che si sono svolte contemporaneamente, una interrompe l’altra.

(Es. mentre stavo studiando il telefono ha squillato - while I was studying the phone rang)

Oppure per indicare azioni iniziate nel passato e non ancora concluse.

 

Si forma con il passato dell’ausiliare essere + il verbo alla forma ING.

 

  • A: He was speaking.
  • N: He was not speaking.
  • I:  Was he speaking?

 

 

 

 

Present Perfect

 

Si usa quando nella frase NON è specificato il tempo in cui l’azione è avvenuta (ho visto Giovanni).

Oppure quando il tempo è specificato ma si tratta di un tempo non ancora finito, es. oggi, questa settimana, questo mese.

 

Si forma con il verbo/ausiliare avere + il participio passato. (Il participio passato si forma con la terza forma del paradigma per i verbi irregolari o aggiungendo “ED” ai verbi regolari).

 

  • A: He has spoken.
  • N: He has not spoken.
  • I: Has he spoken?

 

 

 

Present Perfect Continuous

 

Si usa per indicare un’azione che è avvenuta nel passato, è durata un certo tempo, e si è appena conclusa o si sta ancora svolgendo.

Non può essere usato nella forma negativa e con i verbi “Toh have” e “To know”. In questi casi si usa il Present Perfect.

 

Si forma con il verbo/ausiliare avere + been + il verbo principale della frase alla forma ING.

 

  • A: He has been speaking.
  • I:  Has he been speaking?

 

 

 

 

Past Perfect

 

Si usa per indicare due azioni che si sono svolte nel passato di cui una è avvenuta prima dell’altra.

Quella che sulla linea del tempo avviene per prima va espressa con il Past Perfect, la seconda con il Simple Past.

Es. When John arrived I had already left

 

Si forma con il passato del verbo/ausiliare have (had) + il participio passato.

 

  • A: He had spoken.
  • N: He had not spoken.
  • I: Had he spoken?

 

 

 

 

Past perfect continuos

 

Si usa per indicare due azioni che si sono svolte nel passato di cui una è avvenuta prima dell’altra.

Sottolinea la durata nel tempo dell’azione stessa, a balte viene usato al posto del past perfect simple.

 

Si forma con il passato del verbo/ausiliare avere + been +il verbo principale della frase alla forma ING.

 

  • A: He had been speaking.
  • N: He had not been speaking.
  • I: Had he been speaking?

 

 

 

 

Future continuous

 

Il future continuous si usa per descrivere un’azione che sarà in corso in un determinato futuro.

Per evidenziare che un evento è già stato programmato (perciò lo si descrive in già in fase di svolgimento).

 

Si forma per tutte le persone con will + be + il verbo principale della frase alla forma ING.

 

  • A: He will be speaking.
  • N: He won’t be speaking.
  • I: Will he be speaking?

 

 

 

 

Future perfect

 

Si usa per descrivere un’azione che si presume che sia conclusa entro un determinato momento futuro.

 

Si forma con Will + have + Partcipio passato del verbo principale.

 

  • A: He will have spoken
  • N: He won't have spoken.
  • I: Will he have spoken

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USED TO/ GET USED TO

 

"Used to” si usa per parlare di azioni che accadevano regolarmente nel passato ma adesso non accadono più , o per cose che erano vere ,ma adesso non lo sono più.

 

Es. I used to play tennis when I was young —> giocavo a tennis regolarmente quando ero giovane, ora non più

 

Si forma con il soggetto + used + l’infinito col to.

 

  • A: He used to play tennis.
  • N: He didn’t use to play tennis.
  • I: Did he use to play tennis?

 

 

 

 

"Be/get used to” si usano per intendere abitudini, cose che si è abituati a fare, o cose che ci si sta abituando a fare.

 

Es. I get used to eating italian food —> Mi sto abituando a mangiare italiano.

Es. I am used to eating italian food —> Sono abituato a mangiare italiano.

 

Si forma con il soggetto + be/get + used to + verbo principale alla forma ING

 

 

 

“Would” che generalmente viene usato per richieste o proposte espresse in modo formale, è possibile utilizzarlo per esprimere abitudini del passato, con un significato simile a quello di "used to".

 

Es. When i was young, i would play tennis twice a week —> Quando ero piccolo, giocavo a tennis due volte a settimana.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PASSIVO

 

La forma passiva si usa quando non si sa o non occorre specificare chi compie l’azione, portando l’attenzione sull’azione stessa che viene compiuta.

Per specificare chi la compie si usa la preposizoine “by”.

 

Si costruisce con il verbo “to be” (coniugato) + il participio passato.

 

  • A: The house was built in 2006.
  • N:  The house wasn't built in 2006.
  • I: Was the house built in 2006?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Casi particolari:

 

Forma passiva con l’infinito

     Viene utilizzata dopo i verbi modali e con quei verbi che reggono l’infinito.

     Es. You have to be tested before you can get your driving license.

 

Forma passiva con il gerundio

     Si utilizza dopo una preposizione e con i verbi che reggono il gerundio.

     Es. Most film stars hate being interviewed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ARTICOLI DETERMINATIVI/INDETERMINATIVI, NOMI NUMERABILI/NON NUMERABILI

 

Esistono tre articoli che si utilizzano in situazioni diverse a seconda del nome che segue.

 

  •  Determinativi  (The)

 

         Si usa quando ci riferiamo a qualcosa/qualcuno che l’interlocutore conosce. Es. Have you already seen the dog of mark?

          Quando ci riferiamo a cose di cui ne esiste una sola. Es. The sun is shining.

          Quando ci riferiamo a punti geografici come mari, monti o zone della terra. Es. The mediterranean, the pole, the equator.

          Quando ci riferiamo a qualcosa/qualcuno in particolare. Es. The film was beautiful (solo questo film, non tutti).

 

  • Indeterminativi  (A/An)

 

         Si usa quando ci riferiamo a qualcosa non specificamente conosciuto dal nostro interlocutore.  Es. I’ve saw a film that was

          beautiful (Lo conosco solo io che ne parlo)

          Quando non si vuole o non si può specificare esattamente a quale cosa/persona ci si riferisce. Es. I saw a person in my room

          yesterday.

 

Si usa “A” quando il sostantivo che segue inizia con una consonante. Es. A book, A phone.

Si usa “An” quando il sostantivo che segue comincia per vocale. Es. An apple, An armchair.

Se un nome inizia con una consonante che suona come una vocale si utilizza “An”. Es. An hour,

Viceversa se inizia con una vocale che suona come una consante si utilizza “A”. Es. A university.

 

  • Articolo zero

 

          In alcuni casi è possibile omettere l’articolo.

          Quando si usano sostantivi innumerabili o plurali o astratti in modo generico. Es. Salt is unhealthy, Friends bring happiness, Love

is awesome

          Se si parla di vie, paesi, città, stati, continenti, montagne, laghi, riviste, giornali, malattie in modo generale.

 

  • Nomi numerabili

 

         Sono tutti quei nomi per cui è possibile specificare una quantità diretta e quindi formare il plurale.

          E’ possibile utilizzare tutti gli articoli e anche i numeri per indicare una quantità precisa.

          Es. The pen, a pen, 10 pens.

          Es. The apple, an apple, 5 apple.

 

  • Nomi non numerabili

 

          Sono tutti quei nomi per cui non è possibile definire una quantità diretta, è necessario utilizzare il nome del contenitore per

          esprimere la quantità.

          Non è possibile formare il plurale.

          Non si possono utilizzare gli articoli Indeterminativi.

          Es. The milk, a bottle of milk, 2 bottles of milk (Bisogna specificare il contenitore, la bottiglia, per indicare una quantità)

          Es. The sugar, a spoon of sugar.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WORD FORMATION

 

Aggiungendo prefissi o suffissi a certe parole se ne possono creare di nuove (per esempio, un aggettivo a partire dalla forma base del verbo) oppure modificare il significato della parola stessa.

 

  • I Suffissi usati per formare gli aggettivi sono:

 

    • “-y”/“-ly", che formano aggettivi indicanti un aspetto, una qualità o uno stato d’animo.
    • “-ary”/"-ory" e “-ate", che formano aggettivi indicanti una qualità o un atteggiamento.
    • "-ic" e "-al/ar", che formano aggettivi di tipo scientifico, tecnico e culturale.
    • “-ful" e “-less", che formano aggettivi indicanti la presenza o la mancanza di qualcosa.
    • "-able", "-ible" e “-ive" , che formano aggettivi indicanti una proprietà, una possibilità di fare qualcosa o delle          caratteristiche (spesso hanno origine da verbi).
    • “-like", che forma aggettivi indicanti il modo di comportarsi o di apparire, senza la connotazione negativa attribuita, di solito,     dal suffisso “-ish".
    • “-ous" e “-ist", che formano aggettivi indicanti caratteristiche.

 

  • Per formare gli avverbi si utilizza il suffisso -ly, tranne che nei seguenti casi:

 

    • Se l’aggettivo termina in “-y” preceduta da consonante, la “y” diventa “i”.
    • Se l’aggettivo termina in "-ble", la "e" finale cade e diventa “y”.
    • Se l’aggettivo termina in “-ic", si aggiunge il suffisso "-ally”.

 

E' disponibile qui una pagina che contiene tutte le parole che è possibile formare utilizzando questi suffissi.

 

  • A: Affermativa
  • N: Negativa
  • I: Interrogativa

 

CONGIUNZIONI TEMPORALI

 

Si usano per precisare quando è avvenuto quanto descritto nella frase, mettendolo in relazione con un altro evento.

After Dopo I'll go to the cinema after school.
Before Prima I had call him before.
Later Più tardi
I will call him later
Soon
Presto I will be back soon
Now Adesso I'm going now
As Mentre I saw him as he was getting of the bus.
As soon as
Non appena
I will call you as soon as i have news
At last
Alla fine
I'm back here at last
Immediately Immediatemnte I will do it immediatly!
In the mean time
Nel frattempo
I was calling her in the meantime she come back.
Whenever Ogni volta che
Whenever i cook something i burn it.
While Mentre He was coming here while it starts raining
Previously Precedentemente I hadn't
seen him previously.
Shortly
Fra poco
I will be back shortly.
Since Da/Dal
I live here since 2001
Then Dopo I watched a film, then i went to bed.
Till/untill
Fino a
last night In the party there was the music till the morning.
When Quando I'll call you when i get home

LETTERATURA

L'EPOCA ELISABETTIANA

 

 

 

 

Mary Elisabeth I

 

Elizabeth I was the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. When she came to the throne, she found her country on the verge of a civil war. She devoted all her life to the creation of a modern stronger England. She had a special political talent, she possessed a lively intelligence and she always chose the middle way to govern her country. Elizabeth reintroduced the protestant religion. In 1559 there was a second act of supremacy which asserted the supremacy of the monarch. She called herself Governor and not “Supreme Head on Earth” of the church of England as her father had done. Her counselors wanted she married someone and had a heir. But she never married, she thought only to her people. In fact, she gave England more than 40 years of stability and prosperity.

During her reign England came out victorious from a war against Spain and laid the foundations for the future commercial and maritime power of the nation.

Her time, also called the Elizabethan Age, was a period of extraordinary artistic and cultural flowering too: William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, Ben Jonson, Edmund Spenser, Francis Bacon are just some of the writers and thinkers who lived during her reign.

This period was called the Golden age.

 

Il sonetto elisabettiano

 

The renaissance s considered the “golden age” of poetry and arts.

At this time was born the sonnet, in Italy, and after introduced in England by sir Thomas Wyatt.

In Italy were Dante e Petrarca the founders of that new composition, and Caznoniere had become the model for all european poets.

The sonnet is composed of 14 lines, divided in 1 octave and 1 sextet, the most frequent rhyme schemes are ABBA ABBA CDE CDE or ABBA ABBA DCD DCD.

After a period of evolution, the english sonnet standard can be identified in the Shakespeare’s model.

That model is composed by 3 quatrains and one final couplet, the rhyme schemes is ABAB CDCD EFEF GG.

The traditional subject of the sonnet are love, beauty, art and more.

SHAKESPEARE

 

 

 

Shakespeare is probably the met famous English writers.

Not very much is known about his life.

Is born in April 1564 (we know that from his baptism certificates) at Stratford-upon-Avon.

His father is a respected businessman, so William probably attended the King’s New Grammar School, but we don’t know if he finished his studies, he never went to an university.

In the November 1582 he marriages to Anne Hathaway, and they had a child a year later.

From about 1590 he starts to write his plays and collaborate with other dramatics.

In 1992, he went to London and with his friend, they build a theater called the Globe Theater.

H made a lot of money from the theater and in 1610 he finally return too his family in Stratford, where he die in 1616.

He totally realized 37 plays in his life.

 

Romeo and Juliet

 

Montecchi and Capuleti's families of Verona were enemies.

They were always fighting.

Romeo was a Montecchi and he was interested more in love than fighting.

He was in love with Rosaline, a Capuleti.

Romeo's best friends was Benvolio, they discovered that there was a masked ball that night, at the Capuleti's house and they decided to go there to meet Rosaline.

They went there but Romeo couldn't find Rosaline and so he was sad, then he saw a beautiful girl, who was dancing with a count.

She was Juliet who was going to marry the count.

Romeo asked a servant about her, and Tybalt, Juliet's cousin, recognized his voice and went to his uncle to tell that Romeo Montecchi was in house.

The uncle didn't want to start a fight, but Tybalt wanted a revenge.

Romeo met Juliet he declared his love to her and they kiss, then Juliet went away.

They fell in love but they discovered that their families were enemies.

Romeo went to meet her again under her balcony, they spoke about their love, and Romeo asked her to marry him.

Romeo went to frate Lorenzo and asked him to marry them, he agreed because he thought that could have been a good way to stop the fight between the families.

The next afternoon they were married.

The following morning Tybalt and some Capuleti met Romeo with his friends Benvolio e Mercutio.

Tybalt wanted to start a fight but Romeo didn't want.

Mercutio decided to fight for him, against Tybalt.

Tybalt killed Mercutio.

Romeo decided to take his revenge and killed Tybalt.

The prince of Verona arrived and he decided that Romeo's punishment could have been exile.

Juliet heard about that, and she said she wanted to die, because she couldn't stay without Romeo.

Frate Lorenzo wanted to help the young lovers, and he told Romeo to go to Mantova.

He wanted to tell the families about the marriage, and ask the prince to forgive Romeo

Lord Capuleti wanted Juliet to marry the count.

Juliet asked for frate Lorenzo's help, he gave her a special liquid that would have made her fall asleep, so that everyone would have thought she was dead.

She drank the liquid.

Romeo heard about her death.

He came to see her at her tomb, he met the count and killed him, and then he kissed her and put the poison into his mouth and killed himself.

When Juliet opened her eyes and found that Romeo was dead, she decided to kill herself with his knife, after this tragic death the two families decided to become friends.

 

Macbeth

 

Macbeth was a scottish general, and he was a hero.

One day, while he was returning home with general Banquo, they saw three witches appear.

The witches gave Macbeth the title “Thane of Cawdor” and they said he was going to be the king but that Banquo's children were going to sit upon the throne.

Then the witches disappeared.

Messengers arrived from the king, the king gave Macbeth the title “Thane of Cawdor”.

So the witches were right.

Macbeth couldn't stop thinking about the other witches' words.

Macbeth told his ambitious wife about the witches' words, so she wanted to help his husband to become king of Scotland.

When the king came to stay at their castle, she decided to murder him.

Macbeth had second thoughts about the murder but his wife convinced him.

He would give the king's guards wine to make them drunk, kill the king and then put the blood on the sleeping guards.

Macbeth killed the king.

Macbeth was afraid and took the guard's daggers with him but his wife took the daggers back, because she wanted the guards to seem guilty.

He was covered with blood, so he washed and changed.

Lord Macduff came and asked for the king.

Lady Macbeth brought him upstairs where they found the king dead.

The king's children went away because they were afraid to be killed and so Macbeth was crowned king.

He couldn't stop thinking about the witches' prophecy about Banquo and his children.

So he decided to kill them.

He organized a feast and invited them

Three murderers killed Banquo but his son was still alive.

Macbeth saw Banquo's ghost during the feast and spoke with him, so everyone thought he was mad.

Macbeth was tormented by visions and ghosts so he decided to meet the witches again.

 

Hamlet

 

In a castle of Denmark, people are worried because of the apparition of a ghost like the king dead not much time before.

Hamlet, the prince, suffers for his father death and for the new marriage of his mother, the queen, who has married his uncle, that has become king.

Hamlet is in love with Ofelia, Polonio's daughter.

Polonio is the king's chamberlain.

She tells her father about hamlet proposal, but hi says that there is too much difference of rank and should stop to see.

Orazio friends of hamlet tells him about the ghost, and so he decides to stay up that night and meet him.

The ghost arrives and says that he is his father that was killed by his brother, with poison while he was sleeping.

Hamlet promises to avenge his father, and he begins to behave like a mad.

The king his worried and ask Rosenecrantz and Guildenstern to discover the reason of his madness and they think his going mad because of Ofelia repulsion.

The king is in conflict with Fortebraccio, the king of Norway.

To be sure that the ghost says the truth, hamlet invite some actors in the castle to act a story like his father's murder: if the king is shocked he is guilty.

Hamlet goes murder and so the king decides to ask Rosenecrantz and Guildenstern to bring him to England.

Hamlet speaks with his mother and he kills Polonio.

Ofelia refused by hamlet goes mad and kills herself.

His brother Laerte discovers his father and his sister death and want his revenge.

While hamlet is traveling to England he discovers that Rosenecrantz and Guildenstern received the order to kill him, and escapes and return to Denmark.

Laerte and the king decide to plan a fight between Laerte and hamlet.

They want to kill Hamlet, so Laerte uses a poisoned sword and he if he misses the arm there is also poisoned wine to give him to drink.

During the fight they hurt each other: but they exchange their swords and so Laerte dies poisoned.

Before dying hamlet discovers the kings plot, and kills him

The queen dies because she drinks the poisoned wine.

Hamlet ask Orazio to tell his story in the future and he dies.

Fortebraccio arrives to the castle and becomes king of Denmark.

 

Othello

 

Othello the moor and Desdemona married secretly.

Barabantio, Desdemona's father, hated him.

Iago, Othello's officer hated Othello because he chose Cassio as the first soldier.

Iago decided to have his revenge.

Rodrigo was in love with Desdemona and Iago helped him to conquer her.

Rodrigo went to Barabantio to tell him that, Desdemona, had run away to marry the moor.

Barabantio couldn't find Desdemona in their house and so they went to the duke of Venice to meet Othello.

The duke called Desdemona and she spoke about her love.

Barabantio understood that she really loved Othello, and gave her to him.

Othello with army left for Cyprus to fight a battle.

Rodrigo and Iago went with them.

Iago told Rodrigo to start a fight with Cassio, during this fight the governor of Cyprus was wounded and Othello was very angry with Cassio.

Rodrigo told Othello that Desdemona was in love with Cassio.

Iago told Cassio to ask for Desdemona help.

Othello saw Desdemona and Cassio together and began to think that they were lovers.

Emilia was Desdemona's maid and she took Desdemona's handkerchief to give it to her husband Iago.

Othello met Iago and he told him that Cassio had Desdemona's handkerchief.

Othello wanted to kill both Cassio and Desdemona and made Iago his first soldier.

Othello asked Desdemona to give him his handkerchief but she didn't have it and so, he felt angry.

Othello had to return to Venice and Cassio became the new governor of Cyprus.

Desdemona was happy and Othello slapped her face.

Rodrigo and Iago tried to kill Cassio.

Othello killed Desdemona.

But when he discovered the truth about Desdemona he couldn't forgive himself and so he decided to suicide.

 

The twelfth Nigth

 

Viola, the daughter of a marquis was traveling with her brother Sebastian on a ship.

The ship sank, but she was alive and reached a shore of Illyria with the captain.

Illyria was ruled by the duke Orsino who was in love with Olivia.

Viola disguised as a boy named Cesario and began to work as Orsino's servant.

Olivia didn't leave her house because she was sad about her father and brother death.

Viola felt in love with Orsino.

Orsino sent her to Olivia, to convince her to love him.

Olivia met viola, Olivia told her she couldn't love Orsino but she wanted her to come back.

Sebastian survived and was helped by captain Antonio to reach the city and decided to meet the duke.

The captain gave him some money.

Viola and Orsino talked about love, Orsino wanted Viola to went to Olivia again and bring her a jewel.

Viola met Olivia and told her that the dukes loved her but Olivia was not interested.

Olivia told viola that she loved her but viola answered that she couldn't love her.

Olivia said she wanted to see her again because maybe she could have persuaded her to love the duke.

Antonio was being arrested when he saw viola and thought she was Sebastian.

He asked for his money back to pay for his freedom, but viola didn't understand what was happening, and so he was arrested.

Viola discovered that Sebastian was alive.

Sebastian walked past Olivia's house and Olivia saw him and thought he was viola disguised.

Olivia wanted to marry him immediately.

The duke and viola arrived to Olivia's house.

The duke's officers came with Antonio too.

Olivia and Sebastian arrived.

Sebastian and viola recognized themselves as brother and sister.

The duke suddenly understood everything, and declared his love to viola, he proposed to her and viola accepted to marry him.

And they lived happily ever after.

INTERAMENTE REALIZZATO DA MATTIA BONZI